Liver Function Tests

Liver Function Test (LFT) in Delhi & Gurgaon

Bilirubin (Total): Bilirubin is a substance produced during normal breakdown of red blood cells. Bilirubin is of two types - direct and indirect. Elevated levels of direct bilirubin might indicate liver damage, obstruction, viral hepatitis, and/or other kinds of liver disorders. Increase in indirect bilirubin levels might be indicative of certain types of anaemia, which include hemolytic anaemia in which there is destruction of a large number of red blood cells, or maybe of no significance (physiological jaundice). Bilirubin is also commonly elevated in newborns and neonates.

Bilirubin (Direct): Direct bilirubin is excreted out of your body in the form of bile. Bile pigments give yellowish colour to your stool.

Bilirubin (Indirect): Indirect bilirubin is converted to direct bilirubin to facilitate its clearance from the body. Increase in indirect bilirubin may be caused due to hemolysis and certain congenital disorders.

S.G.O.T. (Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase):AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase) also known as SGOT is an enzyme found in the liver that helps convert proteins into energy for liver cells. When the liver is damaged, SGOT is released into the bloodstream and the levels might increase. Mild elevations may sometimes be of no significance.

S.G.P.T (Serum Glutamic - Pyruvic Transaminase): ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) also known as SGPT is an enzyme that helps to metabolise amino acids. Like ALT, AST is normally present in blood at low levels. An increase in AST may indicate liver damage, disease or muscle damage. Mild elevations may sometimes be of no significance.

Alkaline phosphatase, Serum:This is an enzyme found in the liver and bones and is important for breaking down proteins. Higher than normal levels of ALP may indicate liver damage or disease like blocked bile duct or certain bone disease.

G.G.T.P. (Serum) (Gamma- glutamyltransferase):It is the average concentration of haemoglobin in your red blood cells.

Total Proteins, Serum: : It is the total amount of protein in your blood. A total protein test can give some general information on your health. Low protein levels can indicate liver or kidney disease.

Albumin, Serum: Albumin is one of the several proteins made in the liver Your body needs these proteins to fight infections and perform other functions. Lower than normal levels of albumins and total protein may indicate liver damage or disease. This is also frequently found in certain diets and also in prolonged fasting states. Low albumin levels can also be seen in certain kidney diseases.

Albumin/ Globulin Ratio, Serum: Albumin/Globulin ratio is the comparison of the amount of albumin in your blood serum with the amount of globulin in your blood serum.


    To prevent liver disease

  • Avoid excess alcohol as alcoholic beverages over a period of time destroy your liver cells.
  • Use medication wisely. Take prescription and nonprescription drugs only when needed and only in recommended doses. Don’t mix medications and alcohol. Talk to your doctor before mixing herbal supplements or prescription and nonprescription drugs.
  • Avoid contact with other people’s blood and body fluids. Hepatitis virus can spread by accidental needle sticks or improper cleanup of blood and body fluids.
  • Keep your food safe. Wash your hands thoroughly before eating or preparing food. When travelling, use bottled water to drink, wash your hands and brush your teeth. Hepatitis A and E are common causes of liver infection.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity can cause nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Understanding Liver Function Tests (LFTs): Assessing Liver Health

Liver Function Tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests used to assess the overall health and function of the liver. These tests measure various enzymes, proteins, and other substances produced or processed by the liver, providing crucial insights into liver health and potential liver diseases. Liver Function Tests are critical in evaluating liver health, identifying liver disorders, and tracking the treatment efficacy of liver-related conditions.

Importance of Liver Function Tests:
  • Liver Health Assessment: LFTs help evaluate liver health by assessing enzyme levels and protein synthesis.
  • Detection of Liver Diseases: These tests aid in diagnosing various liver conditions, including hepatitis, cirrhosis, fatty liver disease, and others.
Principal Parameters of LFT and Their Interpretations:
1- Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT):
  • An enzyme indicative of liver health. Elevated levels often point to liver damage.
  • Abnormal Levels Suggest: Hepatitis, liver injury, fatty liver disease.
2- Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST):
  • Another key liver enzyme. High levels can indicate liver or other organ damage.
  • Abnormal Levels Suggest: Liver cirrhosis, myocardial infarction, muscle injuries.
3- Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP):
  • Enzyme linked to bile duct function. High levels may signal bile duct or liver issues.
  • Abnormal Levels Suggest: Blocked bile ducts, liver cancer, bone disorders.
4- Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT):
  • Enzyme that assists in detecting liver and bile duct problems.
  • Abnormal Levels Suggest: Cholestasis, alcoholic liver disease, pancreatic conditions.
5- Total Bilirubin and Direct Bilirubin:
  • Pigments produced from the breakdown of red blood cells. High levels can indicate liver or gallbladder problems.
  • Abnormal Levels Suggest: Jaundice, gallstones, hepatitis.
6- Albumin and Total Protein:
  • Measures protein levels in the blood, indicative of liver’s synthetic ability.
  • Abnormal Levels Suggest: Chronic liver disease, malnutrition etc
Reference Ranges:


  • BILIRUBIN (Total),Serum [Colorimetric method (Diazo)]- 0.3-1.2 mg/dL
  • BILIRUBIN (DIRECT),Serum [Colorimetric method (Diazo)]- 0 - 0.3 mg/dL
  • S.G.O.T.,Serum [IFCC with P5P]- 10 - 50 U/L
  • S.G.P.T.,Serum [IFCC with P5P]- 10 - 50 U/L
  • ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE,Serum [Kinetic (PNP)]- 40-129 U/L
  • G.G.T.P.,Serum [Enzymatic Assay] - 10 - 71 U/L
  • TOTAL PROTEINS,Serum [Biuret method ]- 6.4-8.3 g/dL
  • ALBUMIN,Serum [Colorimetric BCG] - 3.5-5.2 g/dL
  • Liver Function Test (LFT): Essential Insights
FAQs About Liver Function Test with Short Answers:

Question:What does an LFT test for?
Answer:It evaluates the health and functionality of the liver.

Question:How frequently should LFTs be done?
Answer:As recommended by your healthcare provider, often in case of liver disease or damage risk.

Question:Is fasting required for LFT?
Answer:this varies lab to lab . Please check with your healthcare provider.

Question:Can LFTs detect liver cancer?
Answer:They can indicate abnormalities, but further tests such ans AFP, PIVKA II are needed for cancer diagnosis.

Question:Common symptoms indicating the need for an LFT?
Answer:Jaundice, fatigue, dark urine, abdominal pain, other abdominal symptoms

Question:How long does it take to get LFT results?
Answer:Usually within a day

Question:Can I interpret my LFT report myself?
Answer:Basic understanding is possible, but a doctor’s interpretation is essential for accuracy.

Question:What indicates a healthy liver in LFT results?
Answer:Normal ranges of enzymes and proteins, specific to each test component. Radiological examination if recommended by your doctor is essential for a conclusive diagnosis

Question:Can LFTs improve with lifestyle changes?
Answer:Yes, through diet, exercise, and avoiding alcohol.

Question:What does a very high ALT level mean?
Answer:Potential liver damage or inflammation.

Question:Can LFTs detect alcohol damage?
Answer:Yes, particularly through GGT and AST levels.

Question:What does a high bilirubin level indicate?
Answer:Possible liver or bile duct issues, like jaundice.

Question:Does medication affect LFT results?
Answer:Yes, certain medications can impact liver enzyme levels.

Question:What are ALP levels important for?
Answer: Indicating bile duct function and liver health.

Question:What can cause extremely elevated AST levels?
Answer:Liver damage, heart attack, or muscle injury.

Question:How does hepatitis affect LFTs?
Answer:Can significantly elevate liver enzyme levels.

Question:What does low albumin suggest?
Answer:Potential chronic liver disease or malnutrition.

Question:How do gallstones affect LFTs?
Answer:Can elevate bilirubin and ALP levels.

Question:Are there any risks with LFTs?
Answer:Minimal, mainly discomfort at the blood draw site.

Questions to Ask Your Doctor about LFT:

When discussing your Liver Function Test results with your doctor, consider asking:

  • Bilirubin Levels and Liver Health: Are elevated bilirubin levels indicative of liver disease, bile duct obstruction, or other conditions?
  • Potential Causes of Abnormal Results: Besides liver-related issues, what other factors might contribute to abnormal Liver Function Test results?
  • Liver Disease Specifics: If liver disease is suspected, what specific tests or further evaluations might be needed for a more accurate diagnosis?
  • Treatment Options: If liver abnormalities are detected, what are the treatment options available? Are there medications or lifestyle changes that can help improve liver function?
  • Liver Damage Reversibility: Can liver damage or abnormalities detected through these tests be reversed or managed effectively?
  • Follow-up Testing or Monitoring: How frequently should I have follow-up Liver Function Tests or other assessments to monitor liver health?
  • Alcohol Consumption Impact: Can moderate alcohol consumption affect liver function, and if so, how does it influence the interpretation of Liver Function Test results?
  • Preventive Measures: Besides medication or treatment, what lifestyle modifications or preventive measures can I take to support liver health?
  • Impact of Other Health Conditions: If I have other health conditions, how might they affect liver function or the interpretation of LFT results?
  • Liver Health Improvement Strategies: What dietary changes, supplements, or lifestyle adjustments can support overall liver health and prevent further damage?
  • Liver Enzyme Fluctuations: Can liver enzymes fluctuate temporarily due to factors like stress or recent illness, affecting LFT results?
  • Long-term Prognosis: What is the long-term outlook if liver abnormalities persist? Are there complications or risks associated with ongoing liver issues?
  • Medication Adjustments: If I am taking medications that might affect liver function, are there alternative medications or dosage adjustments to consider?
  • Effects of Weight or BMI on Liver Function: How does weight or body mass index (BMI) influence liver function, especially in cases of obesity?
  • Potential Liver Damage Causes: If liver damage is evident, could exposure to environmental toxins, infections, or occupational hazards contribute to it?
  • Liver Function in Specific Age Groups: How does liver function vary in different age groups, and how should it be evaluated or managed accordingly?
  • Impact of Stress on Liver Health: Can stress or mental health conditions affect liver function or LFT results, and what measures can help mitigate these effects?