Colour of urine is assessed to determine any traces of blood in the urine.
Urine is normally clear and free of any turbidity. Turbidity of urine may be present due to dehydration and may be self-correctable as proper hydration is achieved. However, persistent turbidity may be indicative of some other health conditions such as infections.
Specific gravity of urine compares the density of urine with that of water. Specific gravity of urine indicates the capability of kidneys to dilute urine.
pH of urine indicates the acidity or alkalinity of urine. Changes in pH of urine may occur due to a variety of reasons such as diet, medicines and certain diseases.
High levels of glucose in urine when occurring along with high blood glucose levels may be indicative of diabetes.
Increased levels of proteins in urine for a long time may be indicative of damage to the kidneys.
Chemicals called nitrates are normally present in urine, but certain types of bacteria causing urinary tract infection can change these into nitrites, therefore, presence of nitrites in urine might be indicative of urinary tract infections. Infection must always be confirmed by significant growth of a pathogenic organism on the urine culture test.
Leucocytes may be present in urine and may be indicative of infections, especially bacterial infections..
It indicates the red blood cells present in urine.
Urinary casts are tube shaped small particles that are found in urine and can be visible under a microscope. They may be made up of cellular remnants or substances such as proteins or fats.
Certain chemical crystals may be present in urine that are indicative of some abnormalities or diseased conditions. Sometimes crystals are seen without any particular significance & their presence should always be clinically correlated.
High bacterial count in urine indicates urinary tract infection. Infection must always be confirmed by significant growth of a pathogenic organism on the urine culture test.