dengue symptoms and preventive measures

Dengue Symptoms and Preventive Measures
  • Dengue is a highly endemic mosquito-transmitted disease and is rapidly becoming a leading cause of global disease burden.
  • World Health Organization (WHO) study on the prevalence of dengue estimates that 3.9 billion people are at risk of infection with the virus.
  • In spite of infection risk existing in 129 countries, 70% of the actual burden is in Asia.
  • Moreover, cases reported to WHO depict a substantial increase over 8 folds in the last two decades, approximately from 505,430 cases in 2000 to over 2.4 million in 2010, and 5.2 million in 2019.
dengue spread and prevention

“Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection and is rapidly becoming a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, worldwide”.

The WHO has reported an increase over 8 fold over the last two decades in the number of dengue cases, from 5,05,430 cases in 2000 to over 2.4 million in 2010, and 5.2 million in 2019.

  • Primarily, Dengue is caused by any of the 4 distinct serotypes of Dengue virus: DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4.
  • Clinical manifestations of Dengue disease vary from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome.1
  • WHO has broadly classified symptoms of dengue symptoms into symptomatic /asymptomatic dengue and severe dengue.
  • Dengue disease poses three consequent phases.
  • Firstly, the febrile phase is characterized by sudden onset of high fever accompanied by frontal headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, joint pains, weakness, rash and other non-specific symptoms.
  • Patients in the first phase may be anorexic, have altered taste and have a mild sore throat.
  • Occasionally, constipation and diarrhea along with signs of respiratory distress are also reported.
  • The critical phase of dengue is potentially fatal with a temperature approximately of 37.5 C to 38 C or even less and can progress to fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, severe bleeding, or organ impairment.
  • The recovery phase is the last phase and includes gradual re-absorption of extravascular fluid in the span of 2–3 days.
  • Often, the patient also exhibits bradycardia at this time.
  • If anyone suspects dengue, a blood sample should be taken as early as possible.
  • NS1 antigen test is suggested within first 5–7days of the illness.
Commonly used 5 basic serologic tests for diagnosis of dengue infection are —
  1. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI),
  2. Complement fixation (CF),
  3. Neutralization test (NT),
  4. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA), and
  5. Indirect immunoglobulin G ELISA.

Despite the test used, unequal serologic diagnosis is directly proportional to the significant rise in the titer of specific antibodies between febrile- and chronic-phase serum samples.

Platelet counts need to be monitored as per the trating physician advice.

Dr Dangs Lab’s recommend their Fever Panels blood tests (Basic & Advance) to guide the Physician by screening for a few of the common causes for fevers (included in FP basic) such as Malaria, Typhoid, Dengue and Urine infections.

It also includes a CBC with ESR which is often the most prescribed test for any fever and offers a wealth of information by way of blood counts including the platelet count.

This helps in defining the nature of fever and its treatment.

Moreover, Dr Dangs Lab’s — Fever Panel Advanced blood test has all the benefits of the Fever panel Basic, along with culture/ sensitivity for urine, throat and blood samples to check for bacterial growth and provide antibiotics that the infection would respond and be resistant to. HS-CRP helps to check the level of in flammation coexisting with the fever and is also an important marker to herald recovery.

To conclude, awareness of the general public, timely prevention and the right test at the right time is crucial to combat Dengue.